The Museum of Applied Arts, an Art Nouveau building designed by Ödön Lechner. Photo by Misibacsi from the Hungarian Wikipedia.
Question by Snowflake: Hungary history question.?
What was going on in Hungary around 1895-1910? Many of my relatives from Hungary came to America during this time and I am wondering what the political / social climate was like. What made leaving so appealing to so many of them? (specifically, by going to America)
Thank you so much for your help. It is genuinely appreciated…
Answer by ceewill
“Hungary’s population rose from 13 million to 20 million between 1850 and 1910. After 1867 Hungary’s feudal society gave way to a more complex society that included the magnates, lesser nobles, middle class, working class, and peasantry …
Some lesser-noble landowners survived the agrarian depression of the late nineteenth century and continued farming. Many others turned to the bureaucracy or to the professions …
The rise of a working class came naturally with industrial development. By 1900 Hungary’s mines and industries employed nearly 1.2 million people, representing 13 percent of the population. The government favored low wages to keep Hungarian products competitive on foreign markets and to prevent impoverished peasants from flocking to the city to find work. The government recognized the right to strike in 1884, but labor came under strong political pressure. In 1890 the Social Democratic Party was established and secretly formed alliances with the trade unions. The party soon enlisted one-third of Budapest’s workers. By 1900 the party and union rolls listed more than 200,000 hard-core members, making it the largest secular organization the country had ever known. The diet passed laws to improve the lives of industrial workers, including providing medical and accident insurance, but it refused to extend them voting rights, arguing that broadening the franchise would give too many non-Hungarians the vote and threaten Hungarian domination. After the Compromise of 1867, the Hungarian government also launched an education reform in an effort to create a skilled, literate labor force. As a result, the literacy rate had climbed to 80 percent by 1910. Literacy raised the expectations of workers in agriculture and industry and made them ripe for participation in movements for political and social change.
Hunyad Castle, Hunedoara, Transylvania, Romania. Photo by Todor Bozhinov.
The plight of the peasantry worsened drastically during the depression at the end of the nineteenth century. The rural population grew, and the size of the peasants’ farm plots shrank as land was divided up by successive generations. By 1900 almost half of the country’s landowners were scratching out a living from plots too small to meet basic needs, and many farm workers had no land at all. Many peasants chose to emigrate, and their departure rate reached approximately 50,000 annually in the 1870s and about 200,000 annually by 1907. The peasantry’s share of the population dropped from 72.5 percent in 1890 to 68.4 percent in 1900. The countryside also was characterized by unrest, to which the government reacted by sending in troops, banning all farm-labor organizations, and passing other repressive legislation.”
This was taken from the Library of Congress Country Studies: Hungary. They regularly update the URLs of these studies making bookmarking them impossible, so it’s best that you search for the article with a search engine – it will be worth the effort as they are very comprehensive and authoritative articles.
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The Birth of Planet Earth.
CHRISTMAS was many weeks away, but the smell of holiday tortellini was already in the air. On a rainy October evening, several young men from the Ducati motorcycle plant in Bologna traded their work clothes for paper caps and white aprons in a rustic country inn. Wooden tables laid with large maple boards, bowls of flour and fresh eggs lined one wall of the dining room. By ANN WILSON LLOYD
San Petronio, Piazza Maggiore and Palazzo d’Accursio, photo taken from the top of Torre degli Asinelli, Bologna, Italy. Photo by the great Luca Volpi.
The country known as France offers investors a great opportunity to benefit from the ever increasing property values. France is very fortunate to have a stable housing market, which will continue to stay that way for years and years to come. The low property prices are always an attraction to the area, with strong growth and prospects to keep the overseas home buyer coming back for more. For anyone interested in overseas real estate – France offers plenty of benefits.
The Château de Chambord is one of the many French royal residences of the Loire Valley that are not for sell. Photographie prise par GIRAUD Patrick.
The property in France is easy to access, with many ways to reach the shores. In most cases, you can get there easily for a very cheap price. As many know, France is famous for their transport system, which includes high speed trains that travel to most of the regions. There are also ferries that cover the area, including low cost flights as well. Once you buy a home in France, you’ll quickly become accustomed to the lifestyle there.
A lot of people who decide to buy a home in France, do so because of the surroundings. Buying a home in France is more than just the house, as you’ll get a chance to experience the finer things in life. France has several romantic attractions, which makes it perfect for married couples looking to spend their life together. Throw in some great drinks and relaxation, and France has all of your activities covered – along with a beautiful and spectacular house.
The Mont Saint-Michel is one of the most visited sites of France, photo by b3rny.
Unlike other regions throughout the world, France has one of the most established legal processes, one that has been proven time and time again over the years. Locals view the legal system as safe, as it helps for those who are interested in French property. As you can tell, French real estate is very different from that of the United States.
Although there are many locations overseas that you can invest in, France is actually preferred to be one of the best. France is known as a nation of renters, with plenty of real estate available for purchase. If you choose to rent out your property, buying in France will pretty much mean that you won’t have any problems renting. There are always people looking for vacation rentals and such in the area, making it perfect for investors or those looking for a second income.
Unlike other real estate locations, France offers you mountain snow complete with maritime living. France is a massive region, with plenty of houses to choose from. If you’ve been looking for overseas real estate, France is a location you can’t go wrong with. There is always something to do here, and plenty of things to see. As a second home or as a way of life – France represents an amazing and cultivating lifestyle that you simply must see to believe.
Long a poor cousin in Scandinavia, Norway has surpassed Sweden to become one of the richest countries in the world — to the point where it has become a magnet for young Swedes ready to work hard to make quick money, and lots of it. ”When I was young, Swedes had whiter teeth, clearer skin, Abba and Bjorn Borg. We had lots of fish, and not much else. By IVAR EKMAN
The village of Reine in Lofoten, Norway, photo by Petr Šmerkl, Wikipedia.
Robin Esrock’s success as a global adventurer, travel writer, TV producer and international TV personality was no accident, although it did start with one. Struck down on his bike at a Vancouver intersection, Robin hobbled away with a broken kneecap, and one year later, a modest $20,000 insurance settlement. It was just enough for him pack up his things, quit his job, and set off on a one-year solo round-the-world backpacking adventure to 24 countries. He named his journey Modern Gonzo, and committed to record his year of living dangerously, with online weekly reports, photography, videos, and interviews with every person he met. In doing so, he pioneered a new era of multi-platform, switched-on and wired-in travel journalism, leading to adventures beyond his wildest dreams.
Eating Italian Food during your Italy vacation
Eating Italian Food during your Italy vacation
Italian food will be very important to you during and after your Italy vacation. Most people are usually surprised by the diversity of food in Italy especially if they expect to eat pizza, pasta and spaghetti during their Italy vacation. You may get your fill of these classics while you are in Italy but you will also want to make sure you get your fair share of local delicacies too. Make sure the food you eat is made from locally grown ingredients and make sure you pair the food with some great wine and you will be experiencing Italy at its best.
Italian food is classed into 3 regional types. Northern, Central and Southern. While visiting Northern Italy during your Italy vacation, you will find that the food here is less “Italian” than you would expect. For example they use less olive oil and more butter. They also eat more rice and corn polenta here than pasta and tomato sauce is not used very often. Northern Italian food also includes a lot of use of wild game found in the countryside. These include wild fowl, rabbit and quail. Northern Italy also has some coastal towns and some towns and villages near streams and rivers. So if you visit Northern Italy during your Italy vacation you may eat a lot of seafood and fish.
What we know as “Italian food” comes from Central Italy. Olive oil, cheeses and rich tomato sauces all hail from central Italy. The coastal areas here are also well known for seafood. Italian cooking was said to have been born in Tuscany which is a region in Central Italy so to be sure to visit this area during your Italy vacation. Some of the best olive oil comes from Southern Italy. But very little of it is exported so make sure you sample the olive oil here during your Italy vacation. Naples, a city in this area is well known for its pizza and southern Italy as a whole grows a lot of citrus fruits and has many vineyards. Some of the best wines in the world come from Southern Italy.
You may eat at several local restaurants during your vacation in Italy. However one of the best ways to sample some of the different food that Italy has to offer during your vacation in Italy is to take a cooking class or make your vacation a culinary one. Many of these classes and culinary vacations include going on a winery tour or wine tasting events. Cooking classes can range from a few hours to half a day and they range in price from about $ 150 to $ 250. Many of these are hosted by families in homes or small inns and bed and breakfasts. Some of these classes are taught by excellent chefs many of whom have written Italian recipe books and manage restaurants. They will teach you which food goes with which wine to make for a delicious meal. During your Italy vacation you can learn how to make your own homemade spaghetti and authentic tomato sauce.
A walking tour around the city of Barcelona, the capital city of the autonomous community of Catalonia in Spain, during a period of a few days in January 2013.
I hope that you enjoy this virtual travel tour of lovely Barcelona. I highly recommended this destination!
A concise Irish History Documentary which I hope will be somewhat helpful to Irish History students at all levels. HD Movie 2014 Full